Brechas de Género en la iniciación a la Programación Informática en Educación Secundaria en España

  1. Yucnary Daitiana Torres Torres 1
  2. Román-González, Marcos 1
  3. Pérez-González, Juan-Carlos 1
  1. 1 Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
    info

    Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

    Madrid, España

    ROR https://ror.org/02msb5n36

Journal:
Revista complutense de educación

ISSN: 1130-2496 1988-2793

Year of publication: 2022

Volume: 33

Issue: 4

Pages: 701-712

Type: Article

DOI: 10.5209/RCED.76564 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Revista complutense de educación

Abstract

Computer programming (“coding”) skills are essential for today's digital society, professional and social development. This paper is precisely focused in the study of teaching-learning of coding from a gender perspective. The perceptions of Spanish high school students, who developed coding initiation activities in an international meeting called "Hour of Code" ("HoCo"), are analyzed from a gender perspective. The objective of this research seeks to know the perception and motivation of students towards coding in general and to identify possible gender gaps regarding the following eight variables: notion of the existence of coding (prior to the HoCo event); pre-HoCo coding experience; self-efficacy perceived by the participants immediately after the activities of the HoCo; real efficacy in the tasks performed during the HoCo; motivation and concrete intention to keep learning coding after the HoCo; and relevance attributed by the participants to coding, both for their future personal and professional life. We used the survey methodology by applying a questionnaire to 561 Spanish secondary school students, selected from a random list of educational centers among those registered in the event. Statistically significant gender gaps were found in favor of male students in all the variables studied, except for the last two variables (attributed relevance of the coding for future personal and professional life, in which no differences were found). Globally, our results show an important gender gap in Spain (d=0.5) existing in the Secondary Education stage on the predisposition to teaching-learning coding, which could constitute a threat to equal opportunities. The need to promote equitable teaching-learning of coding is suggested, as well as paying special attention to the integration of girls in computer programming from an early age.

Bibliographic References

  • Armoni, M., Meerbaum-Salant, O., & Ben-Ari, M. (2015). From Scratch to «Real» Programming. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 14(4), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1145/2677087
  • Askar, P., & Davenport, D. (2009). An Investigation of Factors Related to Self-Efficacy for Java Programming among Engineering Students. En Online Submission (Vol. 8, Número 1). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED503900
  • Avendaño Rodríguez, K. C., Magaña Medina, D. E., & Flores Crespo, P. (2020). Influencia familiar en la elección de carreras STEM (Ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas) en estudiantes de bachillerato. Revista Investigación Educativa, 38(2), 515-531. https://doi.org/10.6018/rie.366311
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Princeton-Hall.
  • CEPAL-UNESCO (2020). La educación en tiempos de la pandemia de COVID-19. CEPAL. https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/45904/S2000510_es.pdf?sequence=1yisAllowed=y
  • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
  • Cheryan, S., Plaut, V. C., Handron, C., & Hudson, L. (2013). The Stereotypical Computer Scientist: Gendered Media Representations as a Barrier to Inclusion for Women. Sex Roles, 69(1-2), 58-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-013-0296-x
  • Dos Santos, M. E., Rocha, T. S., Brasileiro, V. L., y De Souza, C. C., (2019). What computing brazilian community is saying about gender gap. IEEE Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologias del Aprendizaje, 14(4), 162–167. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/rita.2019.2952274
  • Espino, E., & González González, C. (2016). Estudio sobre pensamiento computacional y género. Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologias del Aprendizaje, 4, 119-128.
  • Fisher, C., Thompson, C., y Brookes. R., (2020) Gender differences in the Australian undergraduate STEM student experience: a systematic review, Higher Education Research & Development, 39:6, 1155-1168, https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2020.1721441
  • García-Holgado, A., Camacho Díaz, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2019). La brecha de género en el sector STEM en América Latina: Una propuesta europea (COMPON-2019-CINAIC-0143). Article COMPON-2019-CINAIC-0143. https://10.26754/CINAIC.2019.0143
  • García-Holgado, A., González-González, C. S., & Peixoto, A. (2020). A comparative study on the support in engineering courses: a case study in Brazil and Spain. IEEE Access, 8, 125179-125190. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3007711
  • García-Holgado A., Verdugo-Castro S., González C., Sánchez-Gómez M. C., y García-Peñalvo F. J., (2020b). European proposals to work in the gender gap in stem: a systematic analysis. IEEE RITA, vol. 15, No.3, pp.215-224. https://doi.org/10.1109/RITA.2020.3008138.
  • González-González C. S., García-Holgado A., y Garcia-Peñalvo F. J. (2020). Strategies to introduce gender perspective in engineering studies: a proposal based on self-diagnosis. 2020 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). Doi: 10.1109/EDUCON45650.2020.9125289.
  • Grañeras, M., Moreno M. e Isidoro N. (2022). Radiografía de la brecha de género en la formación STEAM: Un estudio en detalle de la trayectoria educativa de niñas y mujeres en España. Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional, Subdirección General de Atención al Ciudadano, Documentación y Publicaciones. https://redined.educacion.gob.es/xmlui/handle/11162/218743
  • Grass, B.E., Collazos, C.A., y González-González, C.S. (2016). Gender differences in computing programs: Colombian case study. XVII International Conference on Human Computer Interaction. https://doi-org.ezproxy.uned.es/10.1145/2998626.2998670
  • Herrero, R., León, C., Miranda, G. y Segredo, E. (2019). Proyecto Piens@ Computacion@Lmente CINAIC 2019. https://doi.org/10.26754/CINAIC.2019.0117
  • Howland, K., & Good, J. (2015). Learning to communicate computationally with flip: a bi-modal programming language for game creation. Computers & education, 80, 224-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.08.014
  • Huang, C. (2013). Gender differences in academic self-efficacy: a meta-analysis. European journal of psychology of education, 28(1), 1-35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-011-0097-y
  • Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (1988). Gender differences in verbal ability: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 104(1), 53-69. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.104.1.53
  • Jacinto, C., Millenaar, V., Roberti, E., Burgos, A., & Sosa, M. (2020). Mujeres en Programación: Entre la reproducción y las nuevas construcciones de género. El caso de la formación en el nivel medio en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Revista de Sociología de la Educación-RASE, 13(3), 432.https://doi.org/10.7203/RASE.13.3.16605
  • Jiménez, L. (2017). Influencias en la autoeficacia de las chicas y la elección de estudios tecnológicos: La programación y la robótica. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Influencias-en-la-autoeficacia-de-las-chicas-y-la-y-Jim%C3%A9nez/c56e45cf37dac54edd108677822e0a37ef8a5f9c
  • Kalelioğlu, F. (2015). A new way of teaching programming skills to K-12 students: Code.org. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 200-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.05.047
  • Linn, M. C., & Petersen, A. C. (1985). Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 56(6), 1479-1498. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130467
  • Malik, L., y Mata, P. (2017). Investigación educativa: Cuestiones éticas e impacto social. IV Jornada de Doctorandos.http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/view/tesisuned:ED-Pg-Educac-Jornadas-IV
  • Montes, H., Hijón-Neira. R., Pérez-Marìn. D., y Montes. D., (2021).Using an Online Serious Game to Teach Basic Programming Concepts and Facilitate Gameful Experiences for High School Students. IEEE Access, 9, pp. 12567-12578, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3049690.
  • Napp, C., y Breda, T., (2022). The stereotype that girls lack talent: A worldwide investigation. Science Advances, 8(10), eabm3689.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abm3689
  • Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2014). Transition in student motivation during a scratch and an app inventor course. 2014 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 1042-1045. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2014.6826234
  • Papavlasopoulou, S., Sharma, K., y Giannakos, M. (2020). Coding activities for children: Coupling eye-tracking with qualitative data to investigate gender differences. Computers in Human Behavior, 105, 105939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.003
  • Picado-Arce, K., Matarrita-Muñoz, S., Núñez-Sosa, O. y Zúñiga-Céspedes, M. (2021). Facilitadores del desarrollo del pensamiento computacional en estudiantes costarricenses. Comunicar, 29(68), 85-96. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uned.es/10.3916/C68-2021-07
  • Robnett, R., (2015). Gender bias in STEM fields: Variation in prevalence and links to STEM self-concept. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40, No. 1, pp.65-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684315596162.
  • Román-González, M. (2014). Aprender a programar “apps” como enriquecimiento curricular en alumnado de alta capacidad. Bordón : revista de pedagogía. https://redined.educacion.gob.es/xmlui/handle/11162/106302
  • Román-González, M. (2016). Codigoalfabetización y pensamiento computacional en educación primaria y secundaria: validación de un instrumento y evaluación de programas (Tesis Doctoral).Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/eserv/tesisuned:Educacion-Mroman/ROMAN_GONZALEZ_Marcos_Tesis.pdf Román-González, M., Pérez-González, J.-C., & Jiménez-Fernández, C. (2017). Which cognitive abilities underlie computational thinking? Criterion validity of the Computational Thinking Test. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 678-691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.047
  • Román-González, M., Pérez-González, J.-C., Moreno-León, J., & Robles, G. (2018). Extending the nomological network of computational thinking with non-cognitive factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 441-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.09.030
  • Rushkoff, D. (2010). Program or be programmed: Ten commands for a digital age. New York: OR Books.
  • Sáinz, M., (2017), ¿Por qué no hay más mujeres STEM? Se buscan ingenieras, físicas y tecnólogas, Ariel, S. A., y Fundación Telefónica. https://www.fundaciontelefonica.com/cultura-digital/publicaciones/590/
  • Sáinz, M., & Eccles, J. (2012). Self-concept of computer and math ability: Gender implications across time and within ICT studies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 486-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.08.005
  • Sáinz, M., Meneses, J., López, B., Fàbregues S. (2016). Gender stereotypes and attitudes towards information and communication technology professionals in a sample of Spanish secondary students. Sex Roles, 74(3), 154-168. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-014-0424-2
  • Torres-Torres, Y.-D., Roman-Gonzalez, M., & Perez-Gonzalez, J.-C. (2020). Unplugged Teaching Activities to Promote Computational Thinking Skills in Primary and Adults From a Gender Perspective. IEEE-RITA, 15(3), 225-232. https://doi.org/10.1109/RITA.2020.3008338
  • Torres-Torres, Y.-D., Roman-Gonzalez, M., & Perez-Gonzalez, J.-C. (2021). Specific Didactic Strategies Used for the Development of Computational Thinking in the Female Collective in Primary and Secondary Education: A Systematic Review ProtocolTEEM’21, October 2021 Pages 25–29 https://doi-org.ezproxy.uned.es/10.1145/3486011.3486414
  • UNESCO. (2019). Descifrar el código: la educación de las niñas y las mujeres en ciencias, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas.
  • UNESCO https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366649
  • UNESCO. (2018). Culture for the 2030 Agenda. UNESCOhttps://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000264687
  • Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1995). Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: A meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. Psychological Bulletin, 117(2), 250-270. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.250
  • Yücel, Y., & Rızvanoğlu, K. (2019). Battling gender stereotypes: A user study of a code-learning game, “Code Combat,” with middle school children. Computers in Human Behavior, 99, 352-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.05.029